How do I author quiz and question xAPI statements

We regularly get asked questions about xAPI statements. A really common one is about how to structure statements for questions in an e-learning quiz. As you can imagine, quizzing is a type of learning experience that the xAPI specification authors had in mind when writing the specification and it's also a use case that's see many many xAPI implementations. There's a well worn path and very clear expectations of how xAPI statements for quizzes should be structured. 

This guide offers some advice, resources and examples to help. 

How xAPI statements about questions are different

xAPI statements about questions should follow all the usual advice about implementing xAPI plus a few additional points:

Example statements

Below are a number of example statements for an e-learning assessment and questions. These were originally generated by the xAPI Golf Prototype. The examples below show the statements as stored in the LRS. Remember that when sending statements you should not include the stored, authority and version properties.

[
 {
  "id": "1ecd7332-1fde-4f27-ad65-46b8f68dfdb9",
  "actor": {
   "name": "Test User",
   "mbox": "mailto:test@beta.projecttincan.com",
   "objectType": "Agent"
  },
  "verb": {
   "id": "http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/attempted",
   "display": {
    "en-US": "attempted"
   }
  },
  "result": {
   "duration": "PT0S"
  },
  "context": {
   "registration": "e168d6a3-46b2-4233-82e7-66b73a179727",
   "contextActivities": {
    "category": [
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/recipe/tincan-prototypes/golf/1",
      "definition": {
       "type": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activitytype/recipe"
      },
      "objectType": "Activity"
     },
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes/elearning",
      "definition": {
       "name": {
        "en-US": "E-learning course"
       },
       "description": {
        "en-US": "An e-learning course built using the golf prototype framework."
       },
       "type": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activitytype/source"
      },
      "objectType": "Activity"
     }
    ],
    "grouping": [
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes/golf-example",
      "objectType": "Activity"
     },
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes",
      "objectType": "Activity"
     },
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes/golf-example/GolfAssessment",
      "objectType": "Activity"
     }
    ],
    "parent": [
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes/golf-example",
      "objectType": "Activity"
     }
    ]
   }
  },
  "timestamp": "2017-01-09T10:33:03.633Z",
  "stored": "2017-01-09T10:33:03.832Z",
  "authority": {
   "account": {
    "homePage": "http://cloud.scorm.com/",
    "name": "anonymous"
   },
   "objectType": "Agent"
  },
  "version": "1.0.0",
  "object": {
   "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes/golf-example/GolfAssessment",
   "definition": {
    "name": {
     "en-US": "Golf Example Assessment"
    },
    "description": {
     "en-US": "An Assessment for the Golf Example course."
    },
    "type": "http://adlnet.gov/expapi/activities/assessment"
   },
   "objectType": "Activity"
  }
 },
 {
  "id": "d2a1efc0-36cc-413e-a523-8f8179573568",
  "actor": {
   "name": "Test User",
   "mbox": "mailto:test@beta.projecttincan.com",
   "objectType": "Agent"
  },
  "verb": {
   "id": "http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/answered",
   "display": {
    "en-US": "answered"
   }
  },
  "result": {
   "success": false,
   "response": "160"
  },
  "context": {
   "registration": "e168d6a3-46b2-4233-82e7-66b73a179727",
   "contextActivities": {
    "category": [
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/recipe/tincan-prototypes/golf/1",
      "definition": {
       "type": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activitytype/recipe"
      },
      "objectType": "Activity"
     },
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes/elearning",
      "definition": {
       "name": {
        "en-US": "E-learning course"
       },
       "description": {
        "en-US": "An e-learning course built using the golf prototype framework."
       },
       "type": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activitytype/source"
      },
      "objectType": "Activity"
     }
    ],
    "grouping": [
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes/golf-example",
      "objectType": "Activity"
     },
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes",
      "objectType": "Activity"
     },
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes/golf-example/GolfAssessment",
      "objectType": "Activity"
     }
    ],
    "parent": [
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes/golf-example/GolfAssessment",
      "objectType": "Activity"
     }
    ]
   }
  },
  "timestamp": "2017-01-09T10:33:22.118Z",
  "stored": "2017-01-09T10:33:22.534Z",
  "authority": {
   "account": {
    "homePage": "http://cloud.scorm.com/",
    "name": "anonymous"
   },
   "objectType": "Agent"
  },
  "version": "1.0.0",
  "object": {
   "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes/golf-example/GolfAssessment/interactions.playing_5",
   "definition": {
    "description": {
     "en-US": "Par for a 175 yard hole is typically:"
    },
    "type": "http://adlnet.gov/expapi/activities/cmi.interaction",
    "interactionType": "numeric",
    "correctResponsesPattern": [
     "3[:]3"
    ]
   },
   "objectType": "Activity"
  }
 },
 {
  "id": "61cab55b-5ab2-4175-8538-a51b091f8a95",
  "actor": {
   "name": "Test User",
   "mbox": "mailto:test@beta.projecttincan.com",
   "objectType": "Agent"
  },
  "verb": {
   "id": "http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/answered",
   "display": {
    "en-US": "answered"
   }
  },
  "result": {
   "success": false,
   "response": "false"
  },
  "context": {
   "registration": "e168d6a3-46b2-4233-82e7-66b73a179727",
   "contextActivities": {
    "category": [
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/recipe/tincan-prototypes/golf/1",
      "definition": {
       "type": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activitytype/recipe"
      },
      "objectType": "Activity"
     },
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes/elearning",
      "definition": {
       "name": {
        "en-US": "E-learning course"
       },
       "description": {
        "en-US": "An e-learning course built using the golf prototype framework."
       },
       "type": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activitytype/source"
      },
      "objectType": "Activity"
     }
    ],
    "grouping": [
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes/golf-example",
      "objectType": "Activity"
     },
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes",
      "objectType": "Activity"
     },
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes/golf-example/GolfAssessment",
      "objectType": "Activity"
     }
    ],
    "parent": [
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes/golf-example/GolfAssessment",
      "objectType": "Activity"
     }
    ]
   }
  },
  "timestamp": "2017-01-09T10:33:22.118Z",
  "stored": "2017-01-09T10:33:22.536Z",
  "authority": {
   "account": {
    "homePage": "http://cloud.scorm.com/",
    "name": "anonymous"
   },
   "objectType": "Agent"
  },
  "version": "1.0.0",
  "object": {
   "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes/golf-example/GolfAssessment/interactions.playing_4",
   "definition": {
    "description": {
     "en-US": "In stableford scoring, the highest score wins."
    },
    "type": "http://adlnet.gov/expapi/activities/cmi.interaction",
    "interactionType": "true-false",
    "correctResponsesPattern": [
     "true"
    ]
   },
   "objectType": "Activity"
  }
 },
 {
  "id": "d72844eb-434b-486e-aa94-c63f0fdbb2fc",
  "actor": {
   "name": "Test User",
   "mbox": "mailto:test@beta.projecttincan.com",
   "objectType": "Agent"
  },
  "verb": {
   "id": "http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/answered",
   "display": {
    "en-US": "answered"
   }
  },
  "result": {
   "success": false,
   "response": "17"
  },
  "context": {
   "registration": "e168d6a3-46b2-4233-82e7-66b73a179727",
   "contextActivities": {
    "category": [
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/recipe/tincan-prototypes/golf/1",
      "definition": {
       "type": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activitytype/recipe"
      },
      "objectType": "Activity"
     },
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes/elearning",
      "definition": {
       "name": {
        "en-US": "E-learning course"
       },
       "description": {
        "en-US": "An e-learning course built using the golf prototype framework."
       },
       "type": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activitytype/source"
      },
      "objectType": "Activity"
     }
    ],
    "grouping": [
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes/golf-example",
      "objectType": "Activity"
     },
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes",
      "objectType": "Activity"
     },
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes/golf-example/GolfAssessment",
      "objectType": "Activity"
     }
    ],
    "parent": [
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes/golf-example/GolfAssessment",
      "objectType": "Activity"
     }
    ]
   }
  },
  "timestamp": "2017-01-09T10:33:22.118Z",
  "stored": "2017-01-09T10:33:22.537Z",
  "authority": {
   "account": {
    "homePage": "http://cloud.scorm.com/",
    "name": "anonymous"
   },
   "objectType": "Agent"
  },
  "version": "1.0.0",
  "object": {
   "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes/golf-example/GolfAssessment/interactions.playing_3",
   "definition": {
    "description": {
     "en-US": "A typical golf course has ____ holes"
    },
    "type": "http://adlnet.gov/expapi/activities/cmi.interaction",
    "interactionType": "numeric",
    "correctResponsesPattern": [
     "18[:]18"
    ]
   },
   "objectType": "Activity"
  }
 },
 {
  "id": "2b3a7ee6-5e77-4965-8b67-72db39fac368",
  "actor": {
   "name": "Test User",
   "mbox": "mailto:test@beta.projecttincan.com",
   "objectType": "Agent"
  },
  "verb": {
   "id": "http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/answered",
   "display": {
    "en-US": "answered"
   }
  },
  "result": {
   "success": false,
   "response": "double-bogie"
  },
  "context": {
   "registration": "e168d6a3-46b2-4233-82e7-66b73a179727",
   "contextActivities": {
    "category": [
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/recipe/tincan-prototypes/golf/1",
      "definition": {
       "type": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activitytype/recipe"
      },
      "objectType": "Activity"
     },
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes/elearning",
      "definition": {
       "name": {
        "en-US": "E-learning course"
       },
       "description": {
        "en-US": "An e-learning course built using the golf prototype framework."
       },
       "type": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activitytype/source"
      },
      "objectType": "Activity"
     }
    ],
    "grouping": [
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes/golf-example",
      "objectType": "Activity"
     },
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes",
      "objectType": "Activity"
     },
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes/golf-example/GolfAssessment",
      "objectType": "Activity"
     }
    ],
    "parent": [
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes/golf-example/GolfAssessment",
      "objectType": "Activity"
     }
    ]
   }
  },
  "timestamp": "2017-01-09T10:33:22.119Z",
  "stored": "2017-01-09T10:33:22.538Z",
  "authority": {
   "account": {
    "homePage": "http://cloud.scorm.com/",
    "name": "anonymous"
   },
   "objectType": "Agent"
  },
  "version": "1.0.0",
  "object": {
   "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes/golf-example/GolfAssessment/interactions.playing_2",
   "definition": {
    "description": {
     "en-US": "A score of two under par on a given hole is known as a(n):"
    },
    "type": "http://adlnet.gov/expapi/activities/cmi.interaction",
    "interactionType": "choice",
    "correctResponsesPattern": [
     "eagle"
    ],
    "choices": [
     {
      "id": "opportunity-for-improvement",
      "description": {
       "en-US": "opportunity for improvement"
      }
     },
     {
      "id": "birdie",
      "description": {
       "en-US": "birdie"
      }
     },
     {
      "id": "double-bogie",
      "description": {
       "en-US": "double bogie"
      }
     },
     {
      "id": "eagle",
      "description": {
       "en-US": "eagle"
      }
     }
    ]
   },
   "objectType": "Activity"
  }
 },
 {
  "id": "6a070f7e-b363-468f-94a8-ad4c4a50cad2",
  "actor": {
   "name": "Test User",
   "mbox": "mailto:test@beta.projecttincan.com",
   "objectType": "Agent"
  },
  "verb": {
   "id": "http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/answered",
   "display": {
    "en-US": "answered"
   }
  },
  "result": {
   "success": false,
   "response": "The-PGA"
  },
  "context": {
   "registration": "e168d6a3-46b2-4233-82e7-66b73a179727",
   "contextActivities": {
    "category": [
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/recipe/tincan-prototypes/golf/1",
      "definition": {
       "type": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activitytype/recipe"
      },
      "objectType": "Activity"
     },
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes/elearning",
      "definition": {
       "name": {
        "en-US": "E-learning course"
       },
       "description": {
        "en-US": "An e-learning course built using the golf prototype framework."
       },
       "type": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activitytype/source"
      },
      "objectType": "Activity"
     }
    ],
    "grouping": [
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes/golf-example",
      "objectType": "Activity"
     },
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes",
      "objectType": "Activity"
     },
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes/golf-example/GolfAssessment",
      "objectType": "Activity"
     }
    ],
    "parent": [
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes/golf-example/GolfAssessment",
      "objectType": "Activity"
     }
    ]
   }
  },
  "timestamp": "2017-01-09T10:33:22.119Z",
  "stored": "2017-01-09T10:33:22.539Z",
  "authority": {
   "account": {
    "homePage": "http://cloud.scorm.com/",
    "name": "anonymous"
   },
   "objectType": "Agent"
  },
  "version": "1.0.0",
  "object": {
   "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes/golf-example/GolfAssessment/interactions.playing_1",
   "definition": {
    "description": {
     "en-US": "The rules of golf are maintained by:"
    },
    "type": "http://adlnet.gov/expapi/activities/cmi.interaction",
    "interactionType": "choice",
    "correctResponsesPattern": [
     "USGA-and-Royal-and-Ancient"
    ],
    "choices": [
     {
      "id": "The-UN",
      "description": {
       "en-US": "The UN"
      }
     },
     {
      "id": "USGA-and-Royal-and-Ancient",
      "description": {
       "en-US": "USGA and Royal and Ancient"
      }
     },
     {
      "id": "The-PGA",
      "description": {
       "en-US": "The PGA"
      }
     },
     {
      "id": "Each-course-has-it's-own-rules",
      "description": {
       "en-US": "Each course has it's own rules"
      }
     }
    ]
   },
   "objectType": "Activity"
  }
 },
 {
  "id": "ab1d2d43-1d2a-4fab-be1a-3538eb8b5514",
  "actor": {
   "name": "Test User",
   "mbox": "mailto:test@beta.projecttincan.com",
   "objectType": "Agent"
  },
  "verb": {
   "id": "http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/answered",
   "display": {
    "en-US": "answered"
   }
  },
  "result": {
   "success": true,
   "response": "false"
  },
  "context": {
   "registration": "e168d6a3-46b2-4233-82e7-66b73a179727",
   "contextActivities": {
    "category": [
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/recipe/tincan-prototypes/golf/1",
      "definition": {
       "type": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activitytype/recipe"
      },
      "objectType": "Activity"
     },
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes/elearning",
      "definition": {
       "name": {
        "en-US": "E-learning course"
       },
       "description": {
        "en-US": "An e-learning course built using the golf prototype framework."
       },
       "type": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activitytype/source"
      },
      "objectType": "Activity"
     }
    ],
    "grouping": [
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes/golf-example",
      "objectType": "Activity"
     },
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes",
      "objectType": "Activity"
     },
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes/golf-example/GolfAssessment",
      "objectType": "Activity"
     }
    ],
    "parent": [
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes/golf-example/GolfAssessment",
      "objectType": "Activity"
     }
    ]
   }
  },
  "timestamp": "2017-01-09T10:33:22.119Z",
  "stored": "2017-01-09T10:33:22.540Z",
  "authority": {
   "account": {
    "homePage": "http://cloud.scorm.com/",
    "name": "anonymous"
   },
   "objectType": "Agent"
  },
  "version": "1.0.0",
  "object": {
   "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes/golf-example/GolfAssessment/interactions.fun_3",
   "definition": {
    "description": {
     "en-US": "You should take your score very seriously if you want to have a lot of fun on the course."
    },
    "type": "http://adlnet.gov/expapi/activities/cmi.interaction",
    "interactionType": "true-false",
    "correctResponsesPattern": [
     "false"
    ]
   },
   "objectType": "Activity"
  }
 },
 {
  "id": "571e07c9-809d-4613-a799-dda1c08ae2da",
  "actor": {
   "name": "Test User",
   "mbox": "mailto:test@beta.projecttincan.com",
   "objectType": "Agent"
  },
  "verb": {
   "id": "http://adlnet.gov/expapi/verbs/answered",
   "display": {
    "en-US": "answered"
   }
  },
  "result": {
   "success": true,
   "response": "false"
  },
  "context": {
   "registration": "e168d6a3-46b2-4233-82e7-66b73a179727",
   "contextActivities": {
    "category": [
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/recipe/tincan-prototypes/golf/1",
      "definition": {
       "type": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activitytype/recipe"
      },
      "objectType": "Activity"
     },
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes/elearning",
      "definition": {
       "name": {
        "en-US": "E-learning course"
       },
       "description": {
        "en-US": "An e-learning course built using the golf prototype framework."
       },
       "type": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activitytype/source"
      },
      "objectType": "Activity"
     }
    ],
    "grouping": [
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes/golf-example",
      "objectType": "Activity"
     },
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes",
      "objectType": "Activity"
     },
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes/golf-example/GolfAssessment",
      "objectType": "Activity"
     }
    ],
    "parent": [
     {
      "id": "http://id.tincanapi.com/activity/tincan-prototypes/golf-example/GolfAssessment",
      "objectType": "Activity"
     }
    ]
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]
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